The Role of Geographical Barriers in Speciation


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Assessment Criteria:

1. Discussion of the role of geographic barriers in evolutionary processes (20%)
2. Analysis of a range of relevant examples of geographic barriers and their role in evolutionary processes (60%)
3. A clear and reasoned conclusion (10%)
4. Identification of relevant texts which the report will refer to using the Harvard referencing system (10%)

The writer must be English as it is to be written in English, not American or Chinese English. Would rather that not so many American (uni/college) websites were referenced either, I hope you know what I mean by this.

YOU MUST LOOK AT JOURNALS FOR THIS. Where possible reference from up to date journals (from the last four years) and reference from the suggested reading list at the bottom of the instructions. As a rule use around 1 reference (from different sources) for every 100 words, use journals mainly, up to date books and try to stay away from webpages.

THIS IS A REWRITE so look at the feedback files and make the appropriate suggested changes. Also get rid off the page numbers in references, this is not needed in harvard references unless you are using direct quotes. Have included a file called example of a past paper that shows what harvard referencing should look like called EXAMPLE PLEASE LOOK AT THIS.

Learning Outcomes: 
5. Critically analyse the key spatial and temporal patterns of biodiversity

Assignment Title: The Role of Geographical Barriers in Speciation

Rationale: Geographical barriers are important for evolution. They prevent geneflow between populations and may under suitable environmental conditions and timescale produce speciation events.  For example, the Isthmus of Panama has separated populations of aquatic organisms and allowed independent evolution over millions of years. Similarly the Eastern Pacific Barrier has prevented reproduction of populations of many less mobile organisms.  

You will need to write a report discussing the role large geographic barriers in the process of evolution and speciation using specific examples.

Reference relevant sources using the Harvard Referencing system appropriate to the assignment handbook. 

Assessment Criteria:

1. Discussion of the role of geographic barriers in evolutionary processes (20%)
2. Analysis of a range of relevant examples of geographic barriers and their role in evolutionary processes (60%)
3. A clear and reasoned conclusion (10%)
4. Identification of relevant texts which the report will refer to using the Harvard referencing system (10%)

Word count: 1500 words

Format:  All text should be fully justified, with 1.5 line spacing. Include assignment brief, contents page, summary, introduction and conclusion. Reference relevant sources using Harvard Referencing system appropriate to the assignment handbook. Refer to your Assignment Handbook for further guidance.

Indicative reading:

Texts

Begon, M. Harper, J. & Townsend, C. (2005) Ecology: Individuals, Populations, Communities. Oxford: Blackwell Science

Cox, C.B. & Moore, P.D (1999) Biogeography: An Ecological and Evolutionary Approach. John Wiley & Sons

Journals & articles

Baums, I.B, Boulay, J.N, Polato, N.R & Hellberg, M.E. (2012) No gene flow across the Eastern Pacific Barrier in the reef-building coral Porites lobata. Molecular Ecology 21: 5418–5433

Gaither, M.R, Toonen, R.J, Robertson, D.R, Planes, S, Bowen, B.W. (2010) Genetic evaluation of marine biogeographical barriers: perspectives from two widespread Indo-Pacific snappers (Lutjanus kasmira and Lutjanus fulvus). Journal of Biogeography 37 133–147

Grigg, R.W. & Her, R. (1992) Paleoceanography of the Tropical Eastern Pacific Ocean. Science Vol. 255 no. 5041 pp. 172-178

Johnson, K.P. (2011) The Central American land bridge as an engine of diversification in New World doves. Journal of Biogeography. 38 (6): 1069-1076

Karr, J.R.(1982) Population Variability and Extinction in the Avifauna of a Tropical Land Bridge Island Ecology 63 (6): 1975-1978

Lessios, H.A. (2012) A sea water barrier to coral gene flow. Molecular Ecology 21: 5390-5392

Rocha, L.A. & Bowen, B.W. (2008). Speciation in Coral Reef Fishes. Journal of Fish Biology 72 (5) 1101-1121.

Steeves, T.E, Anderson, D.J & Friesen, V.L. (2005). The Isthmus of Panama: a major physical barrier to gene flow in a highly mobile pantropical seabird. Journal of Evolutionary Biology 18 (4) 1000-1008.

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