answering questions

Exam #2 Covering Chapters 8-14

This examination is designed to evaluate two (2) things:  First, it is used to determine if students comprehend the course content and can apply the concepts presented (e.g., synthesis and application).  Second, it provides students with a way to measure their level of effort against the expectations of the instructor. 

It is my sincere hope that each of you will do extremely well!

Short Answer Questions:  Ten (10) questions each worth 10 points.  Each answer should be at least 250 words and should generally not exceed 350 words (not including any direct quotes, in-text citations, or references).  Responses will be graded based upon how well you demonstrate your synthesis and application of the knowledge you have acquired.  Persuasiveness, clarity, conciseness, and grammar also matter.

You must cite the textbook or any other sources that you use by including appropriate in-text citations for paraphrased or quoted material.  Direct quotations require a page reference as part of the citation.  You only need to include the bibliographic reference once at the end of the exam in the References section (Note:  I already gave you the reference to the textbook; if you use a prior edition, please modify the reference accordingly.)

You are to use this Microsoft Word document to compile and submit your responses.  Feel free to use as much space as necessary but please do not change the fonts or colors, as they will help me grade your exam. 

The exam must be uploaded to Titanium no later than Tuesday, May 18, 2021, at 11:55 p.m.

This exam is designed to test your individual knowledge of the subject matter.  While it is open book (e.g., you may use any source material you wish), you are not to collaborate with anyone.  I will process your exams through a plagiarism checker.  If you are caught cheating, you will receive a zero on the exam, and you will be referred to Student Affairs for academic dishonesty.

If you have any questions, please send me an e-mail or text me at (714) 875-1875.
Be sure to pace yourself, do not wait until the last minute, and
1.    What do agencies and unions bargain about?  How are unionization and collective bargaining different in the public sector than in the private sector?  Do you think the current union relationships are working for government employees and employers?  Be sure to include any differences across the three levels of government.


2.    What do you see as the greatest challenge of human capital management in the public sector?  Describe four ways that government can focus on building human capital?  Which of these ways do you think is most important and why? 


3.    Select two of the approaches to decision making (e.g., rational, public choice, bargaining, or participative) and explain the approachs basic argument, discuss how the approach handles values and information, and provide an example of each approach in action in government.


4.    How is top-down budgeting different from bottom-up budgeting?  Which of these methods is more widely accepted?  What have been some of the attempts to reform bottom-up budgeting?


5.    What are three common budgeting features shared among state and local governments?  Discuss whether these features can be applied to the federal budget.


6.    Why do governmental budgets matter?  Identify and explain three central questions that have occurred throughout history.


7.    What are formal program evaluation and results-based management?  What are the main differences between these two approaches? 


8.    Describe the advantages and disadvantages of contracting out? 


9.    The study of public administration forces the study of efficiency versus accountability versus coordination.  How do those three elementsefficiency, accountability, and coordinationfunction in the regulation of administration?


10.    What is the paradox of congressional oversight?  What do you think about it?  Should congressional members make oversight a bigger priority or should it stay the same?  If you agree it should become a bigger priority, how would you deal with the fact that congressional leaders want to be reelected and oversight does not generally translate to voters back home? In general, is congressional micromanagement a danger or does it add to increased accountability?


{Insert any references used below using proper APA format.}

Kettl, D. F. (2021). The Politics of the Administrative Process (Eighth edition). CQ Press.

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